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F & F Tire World Brakes

A Close-up View Of Disc Brakes:

When brakes are applied, increased hydraulic pressure travels through the Brake Lines and Hoses  into the cylinder of the Caliper Assembly (6). This forces a piston against the metal backing of the Disc Pad, which then closes against the rotating disc. This vise-like action slows and then stops the rotation.

Brake Pads:

Worn pads can groove rotors, causing brake noise and damage. Excessively worn pads should be replaced.


Calipers hold pads in place against the revolving rotor to stop the vehicle. Leaking calipers can damage pads and weaken the system, causing unreliable stopping. Damaged calipers should be serviced or replaced.

Rotor (or Disc):

The disc pads make frictional contact with the rotor to stop the vehicle. Warped or grooved rotors wear out pads fast, cause brake noise and dangerous brake lock-up, and should be resurfaced or replaced.

Grease Seal:

This seal protects wheel bearings from foreign materials and prevents lubricant leakage. Damaged seals will cause excessive wheel bearing wear and should be replaced.

Caliper Seal:

This seal returns pistons to neutral position, prevents brake fluid leakage, and helps maintain piston adjustment. Damaged seals hamper piston operation. Pads remain against rotor, causing excessive pad wear, heat damage to rotor and pads, and low gas mileage from brake drag. Damaged seals require caliper service.

Caliper Piston:

This piston pushes against the pads. A damaged piston may freeze, causing brake drag, excessive pedal effort, pad wear, or leakage. It should be replaced and the caliper should be serviced.

Dust Boot:

The Dust Boot protects the caliper seal, caliper piston slide surface, and internal caliper parts. If damaged, excessive caliper-seal wear results, causing fluid leakage and damaging delicate internal parts. Damaged dust boots require caliper service.

Caliper Hardware:

These keep the caliper in place and retract the caliper. Damaged hardware cause excessive pad wear, dragging and brake noise, and should be replaced.

A Close-up View Of Drum Brakes:

When brakes are applied, increased hydraulic pressure travels through the Brake Lines and Hoses (A) into the Wheel Cylinder (B) where two pistons are forced outwards in opposite directions. These pistons force the Brake Shoes against the inside surface of the rotating Brake Drum  which is located behind the wheel assembly. The frictional contact of the Brake Shoes slows and then stops the drum. The brake shoe mechanism is mounted on a Backing Plate. Several Brake Springs retract shoes and pistons after braking has ceased. The Self Adjuster mechanism.

When a driver presses on the brake pedal, fluid from the master cylinder is carried through the brake lines to either calipers or wheel cylinders.  The calipers transfer the fluid pressure into braking force by squeezing the brake pads against the brake rotors.  Friction causes the disc and the attached wheel to slow or stop. Wheel cylinder expand due to the fluid pressure making the brake  shoes expand against the brake drums causing the vehicle to slow down.


Brakes, Drum Brakes

Compared to drum brakes, disc brakes offer better stopping performance, because the disc is more readily cooled.  As a consequence discs are less prone to the “brake fade”; and disc brakes recover more quickly from immersion (wet brakes are less effective).

Brakes, Drum Brakes

Key components of brakes are:

  • Brake Booster — The brake booster usually uses vacuum from the engine intake to boost the force applied by the pedal on to the master cylinder.
  • Master Cylinder – -the master cylinder is a control device that converts non-hydraulic pressure (commonly from a driver’s foot) into hydraulic pressure.
  • Brake lines – a metal or rubber component that carries the brake fluid from the master cylinder to each wheel.

Disc Brakes:

  • Brake Calipers  — The brake caliper is the assembly which houses the brake pads and pistons.
  • Brake pads — Brake pads are steel backing plates with friction material bound to the surface that faces the disk brake rotor.
  • Brake rotors — The brake disc is the disc component of which the brake pads force is applied, they come in 2 varieties — vented and solid

Drum Brakes:

  • Brake drums –A brake drum is a steel drum in which the friction to stop is caused by a set of shoes that press against it while rotating.
  • Brake shoes–Brake shoes are typically made of two pieces of sheet steel welded together. The friction material is either riveted to the lining table or attached with adhesive
  • Wheel  cylinders–When hydraulic pressure from the master cylinder acts upon the piston cup, the pistons is pushed toward the shoes, forcing them against the drum.
  • Brake hardware—a combination of springs, pins, hold downs and adjusters used in retaining brake shoes to the backing plates

The Self-Adjuster compensates for normal shoe wear by automatically adjusting brake shoes against the brake drum as the shoes wear down.